For millennia, the Himalayas have been a bridge between the Indic or other civilizations living north of the great physical barrier, which has over the centuries witnessed constant exchanges between these different cultures which all shared an aspiration for deeper values in life.
The Himalaya has undoubtedly dominated Indian spiritual life. Some of the earliest Sanskrit texts state that the country south of the Himalayas and north of the ocean is called ‘Bharat’, which since very early on has been a source of inspiration for societies living north of the great mountain range.
Civilizational and trade contacts between the plateau and the subcontinent probably existed in an ancient past. Archeological study is a relatively new discipline, though it was extensively been used by the British rulers who left an immense scholarship on the Indian Northern Frontiers (though often coloured with their own purpose and motivations).
It is however a fact that borders have for centuries been synonymous of routes between different worlds, and not barriers as it is today. It is unfortunate we have recently witnessed conflicts and even armed confrontation, in the passages between two words.
This website is dedicated to the Northern Frontiers of India.
It is meant as a resource pool for researchers and the lovers of the Himalaya and the cultures north of it.
We have posted books, articles, historical documents and maps related to the Northern Frontiers of India; they are usually difficult to find in one place.
This material is free and purely for research and study.
Apart from our personal collection of materials, the Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset (MCADD) website ( has been of great help; some US organizations such the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection of the University of Texas Libraries at Austin have also been useful. Finally, we have posted many documents issued by the Government of India, including the White Papers on China, the Reports of the Officials of 1961, as well as extracts of the Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru. Some documents available in the National Archives of India and the Nehru Memorial Museum & Library are made available.
We hope that the content of this website will help enhancing Himalayan and Tibetan studies.


In case you believe that you are a rights holder and are concerned that you have found material on our website for which you have not given permission, or that is not covered by a limitation or exception in Indian law, please contact us by email at
The issue will be amicably solved to the satisfaction of both parties, with the following possible outcomes:

  • The material is left unchanged;
  • The material is replaced on the website with some changes;
  • The material is permanently removed from the website.